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PCDT: Activities


Group Formation

Literacy, Health Awareness and Skills Training

Savings and Income Generation

Access to Safe Drinking Water



Ranga Reddy District and some of the needy areas and also existing 10 villages where Drinking Water Wells provided in Andhra Pradesh. A brief summary is given below: RANGA REDDY DISTRICT Ranga Reddy District has a Population of 25,51,966, out of which more than 50% people live Rural Areas. The inhabitant belongs to the category of below average, poor of the poverty line. The District is one of the drought prone districts in A.P. Lack of drinking water has been continued as a problem and also lead to deficiency disorders amongst the children and women leading to infant mortality and maternal mortality. Most of the inhabitant villagers are working as daily labourers, with petty payments as ‘Daily Coolie’. Poverty, acute scarcity of water, illiteracy has made the district labeled drought prone, with identified mal-nourished cases, source of communicable disease, infant and maternal mortality and lack of proper health care.

  • The population mostly comprises of labourers, either agricultural, cultivators on daily wages ‘Coolies’ i.e. 53.84%

  • The female illiteracy is being on higher scale, ignorance on balanced diet, maternal care, child care, preventive measures are totally lacking.

  • 46.16% of the Population are without any earning, trekking their lives hard, and searching for any opportunity to earn livelihood.

  • The survey also identified many cases of starvation deaths, farmer’s suicidal deaths.

Group Formation and Development:

Group Formation is prerequisite for any program activities in the communities. Group Members are being given Training.

During this program we formed 90 Groups with 1495 members. The Group Formation begins with a three month period of PRA Surveys conducted by the community with the assistance of Field Staff. The Groups elect their own leaders and rotate positions among the members on fixed term basis. Assistance and Training is given to help these members to develop their skills are carry out the functions of leading their groups.

The goal is to see these groups gain the capacity to become independent, self-sustained and developed.


Literacy, Health Awareness, Skills Training :


Literacy & Awareness:

Literacy and Awareness classes have been conducted for the Group Members. It is proposed to extend this activity for new group members. Numeric, simple calculations are taught that would be necessary in the home, market or small business. The lessons are aimed to bring literacy and numerical skills to the levels that are essential for group functioning. Local Teachers are appointed for conducting daily classes while Field Staff oversee the overall program


Health Care and Awareness:

This activity includes Health Education, Health and hygiene, Training to Safe Delivery Attendants (SDA), Awareness on Family Planning, HIV/AIDS, etc., The emphasis will be on Women and Child health and the activities is for all group participants and their immediate families. The health education activity consists of 15 lessons. Staff will co-ordinate with the Government and other NGO’s for immunization and family planning activities. Our Organization have involved in the Pulse Polio Immunization Activity (PPI) for eradication of Polio. This activity focuses on primitive and prevention health care. The Health Promoter, and project Staff encourage all group participants to ensure that children are fully vaccinated. The participatory approaches, drama, puppetry, flip charts, songs are used in teaching Health lessons.


Vocational and Alternative Skills Training:

The Vocational Training is provided such as Tailoring, Embroidery, Basket Making, and plastic/cane weaving for the women group participants.


Agriculture/Kitchen Gardens:

The group members are being given training in new techniques and good agricultural practices for the improved crop production. The group participants are also given training in livestock and poultry production on input costs, group saving requirements, safety practices, seasonal labour demand and price sensitivity. Groups are encouraged to improve their efficiency in agricultural and livestock activities, group saving requirements and income generation.

Women group members are encouraged to promote kitchen gardening in the communities. The produce has been utilized for their family and the rest was sold in vegetable markets, thereby improving their economic conditions. The Field staff will explain about use of hybrid seeds and also use of the manure at the right time. It is aimed that 10 % of group’s members are establish Kitchen Gardens.


Environmental Sanitation and Protection :

There are strong linkages between poverty and the environment. Most of the targets groups live in areas with limited natural resources are where the environment is badly degraded. This involved promoting good practices that will enhance the environment such as Sanitation, Tree Plantation and avoiding practices that result in environment degradation.

Foray into politics because of toilets:

Samadanamma is the Community Leader in Nandigaama in the district of Guntur (Andhra Pradesh). Before the PCDT Program, she was not part of the governance at the community level. But what changed it all, were toilets. “Before the PCDT Program, there were no toilets here. After the PCDT Program they showed us the new “Ecosan toilets”, explains Samadamma.
Ecosan is an eco-friendly, flushless, dry pit toilet, which produces compost. The SAO India recommends the use of this model. Samadanamma was one of the first villagers to be convinced: “I asked them to build mine first”. Work began the very next week. They taught me how to use it”. She was convinced and she started promoting it among her neighbours. “I spent an hour every day going from house to house, explaining the benefits of Ecosan”. Eventually, all of them installed “Ecosan toilets”. Till date 300 Ecosan toilets have been built in her community and Samadamma, thanks to her commitment, who has become Community Leader.

Savings and Income Generating Activities


Savings Groups:

Group Members are involved in Group saving and Income generation. There are 19 Savings Groups - 250 group members. Group members are regularly involved in monthly savings. Even at the initial stages, whereby they can begin a pattern of saving small amounts of money on the regular basis. Each group with the assistance of Field Staff opens a Bank/Post Office account in their local area.

The resolutions are formulated by the group members as to the contribution amounts and learn to maintain their own books and a Bank / Post Office Account. The group itself manages all funds and members together decide how to invest and share the profits. The people managed self help savings and loans strategy. The groups are able to commit themselves to loan making and repayment procedures for successful village loan schemes

Savings Groups:

Number of Groups - 19

Group Members - 250

As anticipated each group member depending on their wages contributed Rs.30 into their Group Savings Fund. Some other group members contributed Rs. 50/-


Income Generation Activities:

Field Staff assist the groups in selecting and managing profitable income generating activities firstly using skills available in the groups and then introducing new skills where appropriate.

Loans are provided from the group savings accounts to individual group members to carry out income generation activities. The group will decide on the suitability of the activities as well as the interest to be paid. Field Staff are work with individuals and groups to assist the participants to build up their family members.


Access to Safe Drinking Water


Safe water reduces the risk of water-Bourne diseases”

The primary goal of the HAO safe drinking water programme in the Andhra Pradesh target area in India was to create a safe environment for children and to significantly reduce the risk of waterborne diseases, such as diarrhea spread by contaminated water and unsanitary conditions. The activities primarily focused on meeting the following objectives:

  • Provide safe drinking water to families in intermediate shelters, schools and Community centres

  • Improve the quantity and quality of water available to families in the intermediate shelters

  • Establish solid and liquid waste management systems at the intermediate shelters

  • Improve hygiene education at the shelters, homes, schools and Community centres

During the year 1990 on the request of the ABWA, Water well and community development programs started in backward and drought hit areas. Since then HAO India provided about 400 wells in drought hit districts of Prakasam, Guntur, Nalgonda, and Krishna districts. At present the project is undertaken in Ranga Reddy District and also other needy areas in Andhra Pradesh.


The Organization redefined the strategy in the provision of drinking water bore-wells. Therefore, it is reformed and adopted Community Participation for providing Safe Drinking Water in the target areas. This activity focused on creation of awareness amongst the people about safe drinking water and ensures their participation in the project. A part of the capital cost about 8 per cent and full maintenance and management cost was borne by the community. In this new approach the Organization role is primarily that of a facilitator rather than a provider.

After formation of the Groups, a Committee will be formed to involve in Community Mobilization, Campaigns, Implementation and Post Project Management and Maintenance. This committee is called “Committee on safe water and sanitation” (COSWAS). Our Field Officer was representing on behalf of our Organization to the committee for giving guidance, information, and suggestions whenever necessary.

This year we have provided 9 Drinking Water Bore-wells in the communities where there is acute need in the target communities. HAO India supplies like Water Filters, hygiene kits for schools and Community centres, water containers, booklets on awareness for community members, flexi boards on hygiene messages, tricycles for solid waste management,

and H2S strips for water quality monitoring had significant impact on the community, schools and Community centres in creating awareness and improved hygiene behavior. The absence of any major outbreak of waterborne disease in Andhra Pradesh is a testimony of the improved sanitation and hygiene practices and behaviour.